Other missions included the Methodists at Badagry in , the Baptists at Ijaye in and the Catholics at Lagos in The Christian missionaries were eager to spread the gospel to other parts of the country. This was only possible where peace reigned and this was far from the situation in Yorubaland, where a series of inter-ethnic conflicts were taking place.
The Fon of Abomey Adediran , who lived in the present-day Republic of Benin, led a series of invasions against the Egba in Abeokuta, while two different factions one led by Akintoye and the other by Dosumu were struggling for the throne in Lagos. Ekundayo Phillips It was T. Ekundayo Phillips who made the most significant contributions to the growth of Nigerian Church Music in the first part of 21st century.
As organist and choirmaster of Christ Church Cathedral, the premier church in the Lagos Anglican Diocese, the responsibility fell on him more than any other person to encourage the growth of indigenous music in the church. He received his first organ lessons from his uncle, the Reverend Johnson, and at the age of 18, he was appointed organist of St. Paul's, Breadfruit, Lagos. He played the organ at St.
- The Puritan Approach to Worship;
- B. The Ordinary Parts.
- The Heartbeat of True Piety – bobaworbu.tk;
- The Bible Sometimes Makes Things…Complicated;
- A Manual of Prayer.
Paul's for 9 years. In , he proceeded to the Trinity College of Music, London, to study piano, organ and violin. He thus became the second Nigerian after Reverend Robert Coker who studied in Germany in to study music to a professional level. In , Phillips' book, Yoruba Music , was published.
Yoruba is the language of the Abeokuta indigents. This book can be regarded as a treatise in spite of the author's assertion to the contrary on the compositional style of early Nigerian Church music. Although the book was not published until , even after it had been published, it was not generally accessible to church organists. It summarises those ideas which have influenced Nigerian Church music composers. Central to Phillips' views are the following observations:. Yoruba music is often based on the pentatonic scale. Harmony rarely exists in Yoruba music. Yoruba music, like all other musical traditions, is undergoing an evolutionary process.
It is known that every nation's music has always been identified with a particular scale at various stages of its development. For example, the Europeans, as all other nations of the world, began with the pentatonic scale. This was followed by the seven-note scale with its modes, then the major minor modes and, lastly, as it stands today, the chromatic scale of twelve notes. Phillips Phillips continues that:. Fortunately or unfortunately, Yorubas have no such succession of scales yet. They have only the pentatonic scale to their credit, although at times some strange notes creep into their songs which might be regarded as the result of an instinctive feeling after variety and extension by means of embellishment.
Phillips asserts that Yoruba music is similar to European medieval music of 'roughly from about the tenth to the fifteenth century'. Other features which Yoruba music shares with European music are according to him:.
Phillips' observations are based on the belief that Yoruba music is often based entirely on the pentatonic scale and that the degree of the variety of melodic pitches employed in a piece or a tradition of music is reflective of the stage of that tradition in its developmental process. As he has also noted, features such as unisonous singing, parallel harmonics and the general absence of cadential semitones are indeed common in Yoruba music.
Despite the controversial nature of Phillips' observations, they have provided the stylistic bases for much of Yoruba Church music. Phillips' works reflect a synthesis of such features of Yoruba music stated above and elements of European music. Thus, as can be observed in compositions like Emi O Gbe Oju Mi Soke Wonni in Figure 1 and his Yoruba Versicles and Responses, elements of his music include the use of melodies which reflect the intonational contour of words and the use of pentatonic melodies treated to European-conceived diatonic chords.
This stylistic paradigm has provided the basis for the development of Nigerian contemporary art and church music. Table 1 summarises the information obtained from the respondents. The information in Table 1 was received from various church leaders on various dates during the interviews. The low figures on the participation of church leaders in mission create a paradox, because such leaders should be the custodians of liturgy and worship in seeking to fulfil the church's responsibility in leading the Church Worship.
I have structured the data according to topical headings that were identified as relevant to the narratives. These are: background and history, liturgical involvement, singing or musical style and organisation and closing reflection. These four headings were not disclosed to the participants. This allowed for a comfortable conversation with all participants during the interview process. The closing reflection is my own synopsis on the relevant headings during the conversation.
Including all the material that was narrated during the interviews would be a cumbersome task for the purpose of this article. Demography: Urban, Abeokuta Metropolis. Participants: The clergy, Organists, Choristers and music-minded laity. Background and history. As deduced from a respondent, the Anglican Church is a church with a long history and it takes its past seriously. But it is also rooted in the present time in the local place. As part of the Church of God universal, the Anglican Communion is designed by divine inspiration to operate in line with God's standards, as clearly stated in the Bible.
It is interesting to note that within two centuries, Christianity and indeed Anglicanism, which started like child's play in Badagry and Abeokuta, has spread like wild fire to all nooks and crannies of Abeokuta and the country as a whole.
Reason #1: To Worship and Praise God
Christianity came into Nigeria in the 15th century through the efforts of Augustinian and Capuchin monks from Portugal. With the untiring efforts of these evangelists, Nigerians began to believe in Jesus as the Lord and Saviour of the entire world. And so, on 25 December , in Abeokuta, Nigerians were able to celebrate for the very first time the glorious annunciation that the Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, was born.
They gave glory to God Almighty, experiencing the peace and joy of the Lord; Anglicanism had been born in Nigeria. In the Anglican Church public worship, 'liturgy' is the term we use for all the church's sacramental rite and texts. Armentrout and Slocum opine that 'liturgy expresses the church's identity and mission, including the church's calling to invite others and to serve with concern for the needs of the world'.
Liturgies of the Anglican are in the Book of Common Prayer. Singing in the church can be as diverse as its worship services.
The final authority over the music used in an Anglican worship service is 'the duty of every Clergy' Canon 24, Section 1 , our hymnal draws all members together musically in the same way that the Book of Common Prayer draws us together in prayer and liturgy. The Anglican Church serves God's 'divine plan for the fullness of time, to unite all things in Christ, things in heaven and things on earth'. By now the Church of Nigeria Anglican Communion had been proclaimed by the Archbishop of Canterbury as 'the fastest-growing church in the Anglican Communion!
In summary, it is to the effect that the Church of Nigeria Anglican Communion shall be Bible-based, spiritually dynamic, united, disciplined, self-supporting, committed to pragmatic evangelism, social welfare and a church that epitomises the genuine love of Christ. The Anglican Church operates in accordance with God's Great Commission in Matthew to all believers: every aspect of its life and work, its faith and order, point to, reveal, announce and serve 'the mystery of missio Dei ', as noted by a respondent.
The Church of Nigeria is likely the largest in the Anglican Communion in terms of membership. Abeokuta in Nigeria was first evangelised by Anglican missionaries of the CMS in , and to this day maintains the evangelical character typical of areas where the CMS was active. The Anglican Church in Nigeria used the BCP plus, of course, translations of it into indigenous languages up until the independent Province of Nigeria was created in Nigeria approved a Book of Common Prayer of its own in , from which this booklet presumably was taken The Liturgy of the Church of Nigeria Singing or musical style and organisation.
A respondent said that music per se in the Anglican Church is part and parcel of its worship. Many times, worship proper does not begin without praising the person you want to commune with, you know who God is and that He likes and enjoys being worshipped and praised, so most times, before any worship proper begins, praise worshipping and singing of songs are the first steps after which one can go into other areas of worship. Most times they find their minds ready for worship when they start with singing songs and praises.
Anglican Church music is the music that is written for liturgical worship in Anglican Church services. Almost all of it is written for choir, with or without organ accompaniment. Another respondent noted that, guiding the forefathers to put together the 39 Articles of Religion that form the core of the tenets of what is believed and practised in the Anglican Communion, each of the Articles is firmly rooted in the Bible. He went on to say that their hymns are divinely inspired and suitable for worship, individually or corporately.
Lesson 4b – The Elements of Regulated Worship
This is well acknowledged, appreciated and enshrined, in practice, in the Anglican Communion, and that enables the church to fulfil its mandate as they make themselves available for service at different levels in the church. There is now the understanding that exuberance and devotion can go hand in hand for enriched, acceptable and profitable music in worship, individually and corporately. As recorded from a respondent, before now there was strict control, if not total rejection, of Davidic exuberance in music in worship - for instance, the shout of 'Halleluyah! Apart from the central place held by liturgy, there are other texts that have strongly influenced their church, as noted by a respondent, and especially important are hymns.
He said further that the Psalms were Anglicanism's first hymns, and at the Reformation were added Metrical Psalms written with strict rhythm and rhyme to accompanying simple melodies; the Eucharistic Hymns now in various languages of the worshippers and to simple music; and the Biblical and early church hymns of the Daily Offices like the Venite Ps 95 , the Nunc Dimittis Lk 2 and the Te Deum Laudamus.
To sing parts of the liturgy is a typically Anglican thing to do.
7 Things We Regularly Get Wrong about Worship
We can note in Figure 3 the classical Anglican choir handling the above-noted Daily Offices in all liturgical services, while Figure 4 shows a contemporary Anglican choir handling all evangelical programmes. One respondent said, 'The Church of Nigeria, Anglican Communion's music in worship in the church successfully combines devotion with delight. Members of the Church are encouraged to rejoice in the Lord always.
Moreover, there is a justifiable balance between Davidic exuberance and worship to the only true God. The entire gospel of Jesus Christ is constantly preached through our music'. Congregations can be led to understand the primary purpose of music in worship.
Their knowledge concerning congregational music can be increased because congregations should not be willing to settle for their present level of music and worship. As noted by a respondent, the church needs to sustain the understanding of the current state of our music in worship. It is therefore suggested that the preaching of the gospel and the teaching of the word of God through our music should be prayerfully intensified.
Anglican music in the early 21st century finds itself with more glorious variety than at any other time in its history. At the same time, diversity expands at a challenging pace. Because of Anglican Church music expanding in diversity, defining its music is increasingly difficult. However, Anglican music in all its rich diversity - historic and contemporary, traditional and innovative - continues to attract new worshippers and blesses the people of God.
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